How Genetic Conditions Can Be Managed or Treated

Many genetic conditions result from gene alterations that are present in every cell in the body. These conditions often affect many systems of the body, and most cannot be treated. However, there may be approaches to manage and treat some of the associated symptoms and signs.
For some genetic disorders known as inborn errors of metabolism, which are caused by genetic changes that disrupt specific enzyme production, treatments include replacement of the specific enzyme that is missing or dietary changes. Limiting some substances in the diet sometimes prevent the accumulation of toxic substances that are broken down by the enzyme.
For other genetic disorders, management and treatment approaches are designed to improve specific symptoms and signs associated with the condition. These strategies vary by the condition and are specific to the health needs of an individual. A genetic condition associated with a heart defect, for example, might be treated with a heart transplant or with surgery to repair the defect. Sometimes, condition such as sickle cell disease can be treated with bone marrow transplant,
Some genetic changes are closely associated with risk of future health problems. Familial breast cancer is a well-known example. Management of such condition includes regular cancer screening or preventive surgery to get rid of the tissues at highest risk of becoming tumorous.
References
https://www.britannica.com/science/human-genetic-disease/Management-of-genetic-disease
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/consult/treatment

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Is Our Decision to Divorce Genetic?

Previous studies have shown that offspring of divorced parents are more likely to get divorced. We need to ask ourselves one question. Is divorce passed across generations due to social and psychological factors or could there be an influence of genes at play?
According to researchers at Lund University and Virginia Commonwealth University in Sweden, divorce may be caused by genetics and not social factors. The researchers analyzed population registries in Sweden and found that individuals who were adopted bear a resemblance to their biological siblings and parents in their divorce histories.
According to Jessica Salvatore, the study’s first author and assistant professor in the Department of Psychology in the College of Humanities and Sciences at VCU, the researchers were trying to understand why divorce run in families. Using Swedish national registry data, they found evidence that genetic factors mainly explained the transmission of divorce.
The findings of the study are notable since they depart from the narrative in divorce literature that suggests that children of divorced parents have a higher likelihood of getting divorced because they live with parents who struggle to manage conflicts or lack the necessary commitments. These children, as they grow up, internalize their parents’ behavior and replicate them in their relationships.

References
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319661.php
https://lifestyle.thecable.ng/study-says-divorce-genetic/
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171004151226.htm

SpaceX, the pioneer of reusable rocket

As most people say, the improvement of science and technology changed our society in many ways. Human lives have attained a higher level of convenience, variety, and vividness. Also, the curiosity of human nature influenced scientists, and the scientists pioneered the new field of science: the aerospace. This field is all about launching the manned spacecraft, sending the space satellites, creating the space shuttles and developing the aerospace technology. However, these works spend a lot of money. The weight of fuel and expendable launch system are the major factors of an expensive launch cost. To solve this problem, many international aerospace science institutes and private aerospace company have researched the way to decrease the weight of the rocket and improve the fuel-efficiency.

 

Depending on the type of fuel, spaceships are classified as a solid-fuel rocket or liquid-fuel rocket. The rocket using solid-fuel can radiate stronger thrust than the rocket using liquid-fuel can. Moreover, using solid-fuel rocket has fewer parts to manufacture than that of a liquid-fuel rocket, and it is easy to launch instantly after long-term storage. However, it is hard to control the rocket during the flight. On the other hand, the liquid-fuel rocket can control the magnitude of thrust. Therefore, most of the rockets use both solid and liquid type engines. By using them, aerospace science organization efficiently launch the rockets. Although these kinds of means are developed, reducing the launch cost is a hard problem to solve. Among other institutes and organizations, the company called ‘SpaceX’ came up with an innovative solution: using a reusable rocket.

‘SpaceX’ is a company that substitutes for transporting space freight such as space satellites, parts of space stations, and daily necessities for astronauts. It is the first private company to successfully launch, orbit, and recover a spacecraft. In addition, it is the first private company to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, and the first to reuse an orbital rocket. Common rockets that use expendable launch system are launched once and then discard after the end of the flight. However, this company’s rockets use the reusable rockets that apply the reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV). RLS is a launch system that can launch a payload into space more than once. Most reusable rockets can be reused when the parts of them assemble again after their flight. Also, the reusable rocket of ‘SpaceX’ can take off and land vertically to its original launch center. Through these mechanisms, ‘SpaceX’ could save the launch cost by a factor of 6 compared to that of other institutes and organizations.

 

‘SpaceX’ has contracted with National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA) and other international aerospace science institutes. Also, it has developed many other rockets and dragon capsules such as Falcon 9 v1.2, Falcon Heavy, and Dragon V2. The prospect of this company seems very good.

Johann Gregor Mendel: The Father of Genetics

Gregor Johann was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian (today’s Czech Republic). He gained recognition as the founder of genetics. Although people had known for many years that crossbreeding of plants and animals could favor certain desirable qualities, Mendel’s experiments established many of heredity rules.
Through his pea plant experiments, Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance. He realized that genes are in pairs and are passed on as distinct units, from both parents. Mendel tracked separation of parental genes and how they appeared in the progeny as recessive or dominant traits. He identified mathematical inheritance patterns from one generation to the next. His Laws of Heredity are stated as:
The Law of Segregation: A gene pair defines each inherited trait. Genes of parents are randomly divided into the sex cells so that those cells have only one gene of the pair. Therefore, each parent passes on one genetic allele to its offspring when sex cells unite during fertilization.
The Law of Independent Assortment: Provides that when characteristics are inherited, different hereditary factors arrange independently during the production of gamete, giving different qualities an equal chance of occurring together.
The Law of Dominance: If an organism has alternate forms of a gene, it will express the form that is dominant.
References
http://www.dnaftb.org/1/bio.html
https://www.biography.com/people/gregor-mendel-39282

Psychology Disorders

Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons: first, during various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual. Second, psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts. Humanity tried to fix this problem with different approaches for every era. Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. The first scientific research was done by Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France, who insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders.

 

  1. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.

  2. “Dissociative Disorder” is when conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

  3. “Dissociative Identity Disorder” (DID) is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder.

Do Genes Play Any Role in Eating Disorders?

Eating disorders are to some extent life-threatening conditions. It has been established that a person who has suffered from anorexia for more than six years has a higher chance of succumbing to the same if no medical intervention is sought. The reason for this is that lack of sufficient nutrients in the human body can cause major body organs to fail, leading to death.
Recent scientific research has pointed at genes as one of the major causes of eating disorders. Other causes of such disorders include psychological pressures fueled by the society’s acceptable standards of beauty. From the study, millions of Americans of varying ages suffer from an eating disorder condition. Around 60 to 70 percent of these individuals have inherited the disorder from their biological parents.
According to the study published in Plos One, eating disorders are mainly biologically-driven, and persons who suffer from the same should not feel stigmatized. They should instead understand and accept their situation and seek medical and psychiatric help. Through medical help, recovery from an eating disorder is highly guaranteed. It is also important for the family and friends of those suffering from an eating disorder to be supportive to speed up the recovery of the person suffering from it.
References
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-genetics-of-eating-disorders/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010958/

Finding Possible Treatment for the Breast Cancer

According to a research, about one in eight women suffer from the breast cancer in their lifetime.  Furthermore, the death rate of the breast cancer is higher than any other types of cancer. The breast cancer is regarded as a conundrum. However, a team of researchers from the University of Zurich in Switzerland has found a way to invent a treatment for the breast cancer. They developed the new way to destroy cancer cell that they were not able to kill before.

Currently, antibodies such as pertuzumab and trastuzumab are used for the treatment of breast cancer. They detect and target HER2 which plays a vital role in the breast cancer. However, the antibodies only deactivate cancer cells, so cancer cells can be reactivated at any time.

The researchers wanted to find the reason why the antibodies cannot totally destroy the breast cancer cells. They figured out that HER2 uses multiple signaling pathways to develop and reproduce cancer cells, but commonly used antibodies are formed to only block one signaling pathway, which enables cancer cells to recrudesce.

The researchers also found out a solution to overcome the lack of antibodies. They made a protein compound which is able to combine itself with two HER2 receptors and change the structure of receptors. It prevents the growth signals from the RAS, a central hub in the cell, and reactivates the signals released by the HER2 receptor. Furthermore, the antibodies might have negative effects, attacking the healthy body cells, but this protein compound only targets the cancer cells.

It is expected that the way treating breast cancer will be more opened in the future through this research

 

 

<references>

http://www.medicaldaily.com/good-breast-cancer-genes-2-genes-linked-better-survival-rate-395235

http://www.medicaldaily.com/invasive-breast-cancer-new-treatment-388652

http://www.roche.com/research_and_development/what_we_are_working_on/oncology/about-her2-positive-breast-cancer.htm