Stressed Plants Produce Defensive Signals With Human-Like Genetics

According to researchers at the University of Queensland, when plants are stressed, they send defensive signals like humans do. The researchers found that plants have genetic machinery used by people to smell and see their environment, and to repel threats.

Professor Jimmy Botella, a plant biotechnologist, reported that the University of North Carolina carried a research on a family of proteins known as G-proteins in the Brassica family. According to the professor, plants have adopted the machinery used by human beings to see in order to protect themselves against water stress and pathogens.

In humans, G-proteins assist people to sense Adour, flavour, light, and are involved in mood regulation and behavior through things such as serotonin, dopamine, histamine, and adrenalin. Almost all living organisms have G-proteins. Nearly half of all human medications attain their effects via G-protein–coupled receptors.

The main difference between most animals and animals – that while animals avoid stress situations by moving, plants are stuck in one location and need to develop ingenious solutions to survive,” Professor Botella said.

G-proteins have been broadly studied in animal systems. However, this genetic machinery in plant systems is still mostly unknown.

References

http://www.freshplaza.com/article/164821/Cabbages-get-stressed-like-we-do

http://phys.org/news/2016-10-stressed-cabbages-emit-defensive-human-like.html

Mimicking the Activies of Our barin

A mathematical model that successfully imitate the brain sequence related to memory consolidation during sleeping was built according to the study published in PLOS Computational Biology.

Recent studies have proposed that certain brain activities during sleeping might play important roles in memory consolidation. However, researches on those neuronal activity was hard to perform. Michael Schellenberger Costa, Arne Weigenand and their colleagues of the University of Lübeck, Germany, have successively mimicked the pattern of the neuronal activities.

There were some studies that modeled the activities of sleeping cortex. However, the activities related to memory consolidation occurs between cortex and the central brain system, thalamus. Distinct from the previous models, this new model have mimicked this thalamocortial coupling, which is related to the memory consolidation during sleeping.

The new model produces the sequence by predicting the activities of lager mass of neurons after looking at the activities of small groups of neurons, which is different from the past models that looks at the activities of individual neurons.

The researchers confirmed that the model was correct by comparing the neuronal activities recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) during the second and first level of N-REM sleeping with the sequence produced by the new model.

This new model, using the new algorithm for brain activity modeling, is relatively simple compared to the previous models and will be useful for the future studies on memory consolidation during sleeping and the diseases related to memory consolidation.

 

reference

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160901151926.htm

Ecological Monitoring Using Advanced Drones


In simple
words, if defined a drone is “A flying camera which clicks the pictures from the air”. So it has basically changed the way we see or screen the biological system of the whole globe. Researchers have found that using the technology or we can say by automation have a great deal or we can say have an exact checking over the measure of seabird provinces in tropical and polar situations as compared to ground numbers. The technology is growing so fast that it has been said that drones were utilized as a part of the past. As we noticed that it may happen that specialist has neglected to test whether drones are the correct source of observing creature populace over ground checks or not.

Airborne observation robots are preffered to be more exact than conventional studying methods of following changes in creature populace and the more extensive environment. This information has been researched by the Monash University. The university made the study, which looked at footage taken from drones flying over tropical and sub arctic islands with the data which has been accumulated by the human counter checking populace starting from the early stage. The main researcher Jarrod Hodgsonwho did all the research while he was at Monash, clarified how the exploration contrasted with the picture tallies and those made by the people on the ground.

Things were like what they see in the pictures taken by the drone did not startle with the winged creatures. The autonomous pictures that were taken were reliably more comparable than those pictures which are taken from the beginning.

Reference site: http://www.eurekalert.org/offline.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160317105111.htm

Drink-Seeking Rats Provide Sobering Look Into Genetics of Alcoholism

Purdue and Indiana University scientists have utilized alcohol craving rats to further enhance comprehension of the complicated genetic support structures for alcoholism. The project led to the discovery of 930 alcoholism related genes, displaying a highly complex trait that is influenced by many genes, together with the surrounding environs. The research model utilized rats, animals with which we share a majority of genes. Highlights from the initiative included the establishment of a link between genetic regulatory gene structures with excessive alcohol consumption, rather than coding gene structures as previously thought. The project’s proponents claimed that everyone had alcoholic genes within, the only difference being our genetic ability to control them. The collaborative research group asserted on the difficulty of alcoholism treatment being brought about by its gene complexity. Nonetheless, they pointed to a further area of further study, which is focusing treatments on the brain’s glutamate receptors (responsible for feelings of well-being).

Reference

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160804152727.html

Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi)

As time goes, Information Technology industry develops more and more.

Almost every equipment are connected to share information by network.

In the beginning of internet gets to be used by people, only wired internet was used. However, since people need to move more and farther, wired internet cannot afford people anymore. Thus, wireless fidelity, which is also known as Wi-Fi came out to be used. .

 

And now…?.

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.

.

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The internet system which is 100 times faster than Wi-Fi came out!!!

Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) is the wireless internet system which uses light to send data!!!

By flickering light, it changes data to binary system – number system for computer- and academically makes 1 GB to be downloaded in 1 second. For now, someone has succeeded to download 1 GB in 8.5 second using Li-Fi. This Li-Fi- machine enables equipments to use internet by lighting them.

[IT 이야기] Li-Fi(

Like this!!!

However, I think there can be some disadvantage of them as their advantage.

Since the equipment requires light to be shined to it for internet (not to be near the equipment), only specific area will enable equipment to be useful. For example, when someone tries to make whole house to use Li-Fi, that person should install several machines in one house.

Moreover, Li-fi makes people not be able to use internet without light. For instance, when someone who lives with other people in same place gets in situation to use internet in late night, that someone must turn on the light that other people can be distracted on the bed. So, Li-Fi will not be able to be used in any time or place.

But, since many developers are continuously trying to develop this system and make up for faults, I believe that Li-Fi will be used in the future widely in the world.

How Lyme Disease Bacteria Spread Through the Body

Image result for How Lyme disease bacteria spread through the bodyLyme disease is an implausibly evasive opponent. Nobody is entirely certain however the bacteria that causes it spreads therefore wide throughout the body or why symptoms typically persist when the infection has been treated with antibiotics. currently researchers at the University of Toronto could finally have associate explanation: the little, spiral-shaped bacteria referred to as Borreliaburgdorferi will quickly grapple on the inner surfaces of blood vessels to urge to vulnerable tissues or to concealing places wherever it will hole up on the far side the reach of medication.

B. burgdorferi uses a special adhesive macromolecule on its surface to grab sort of a hook onto the epithelial tissue cells that line blood vessels, attaching and detaching speedily because it migrates to its destination, the Toronto microbiologists justify in a very new study printed Thursday in Cell Reports. “This mechanism is the microorganism will overcome the quick flow of blood and avoid obtaining anxious,” says lead author Rhodaba Ebady. It is additionally probably that this plan of action helps the pathogens get to sites wherever they’re able to evade the system and treatment, Ebady says.

The initial infection is transmitted to humans via the bite of associate infected hard tick (aka ruminant tick), that sometimes leaves behind a characteristic bull’s-eye rash. Symptoms will embody fever, headache and fatigue. It will be treated with antibiotics if it’s caught too soon. However in concerning twenty % of the cases severe symptoms reminiscent of joint pain and psychological feature issues last even when treatment—a condition physicians decision posttreatment lyme.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/something-to-grapple-with-how-wily-lyme-disease-prowls-the-body/