Do Genetics Determine the Level of Intelligence?

Like many aspects of human cognition and behavior, intelligence is a trait that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Generally, Intelligence is difficult to study because it can be measured and defined in various ways. Many definitions of intelligence take account the ability to adapt to changing environment and to learn from experiences. Elements of intelligence are the ability to plan, reason, think abstractly, understand complex ideas and solve problems.

Researchers have carried out many studies to identify genes that determine the level of intelligence. Most of these studies have focused on differences and similarities in IQ within relatives, mainly looking at twins and adopted children. These studies have found that genes underlie about a half of the difference in intelligence among people.

Other studies have explored variations across the whole genomes of several people to determine if there are any particular areas of the genomes that are related to IQ. Although these studies have not conclusively found any genes that influence intelligence, it is likely that numerous genes are involved, each making a small contribution to the intelligence of an individual.

Intelligence is also influenced by environment. Parenting, nutrition, availability of learning resources and education, among others, all influence intelligence.

References

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/traits/intelligence

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v14/n6/full/5201588a.html

MUN Environmental Conference

 

Listening to the inspirational speech of Monika G. Macdevette, Chief of UNEP Environmental Policy, 300 Korean teenagers  dreams of a sustainable society, where global denizens can use eco-friendly profuse energy without limitations.

2016 UN청소년환경총회에 대한 이미지 검색결과

On October 1st, 2016, Korean adolescents from age 12 to 18  assembled in SNU (Seoul National University) to participate in 2016 UN Youth Environmental Conference.

These students were filtered though strict assessments and were evaluated through pre-elimination essays. Students were acquired to compose these essays under one topic, “Resource Circulation.”

2016 UN청소년환경총회에 대한 이미지 검색결과

On September 24th, 2016, UN Youth Environmental Conference Work-shop was held in Metropolitan Landfill Site located in Incheon City.

This massive landfill occupies the size of six Yeouido region mustered in one, obviously recorded as one of the biggest landfills in the world.

Students had a chance to observe and understand the whole process of disposal of daily trash. These adolescents were also able to grasp the idea of the system, trash into renewable energy.

The genuine conference was held for 3 days(10/1~10/3) in SNU, led by Eco-Mom Korea, along with UNEP, WFUNA, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, Seoul Education Office, and LG Household & Health Care Ltd.

Students were separated into six committees: House of Disposable Products, HO Recyclable Products, HO Food Wastes, HO Alternative Energy, HO Ocean Debris, and HO E-Waste.

Applying the system of UN Conference, delegates of individual countries struggled to stand for the benefits of the cosmopolitan.

2016 UN Youth Environmental Conference Resolution of   E-Waste Committee

Committee: General Assembly

Question of: E-Waste

The General Assembly,

Emphasizing the amount of e-waste increasing all over the world, from 1,900,000 up to

3,140,000,

            Recalling the past resolution from the Basel convention entitled  “Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal” has dim effects,

Regretting the loosely enforced policies which allowed easy illegal shipment of waste from developed to undeveloped nations and the fact that 90 percent of electronic waste are illegally traded.

Concerned  that Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) damages both the environment and humanity and the developing countries have underdeveloped technology that are not capable to recycle the WEEE properly,

Condemning the illegal exportation and importation of e-waste from developed countries to developing countries endanger human health,

Proposes the formation of the United Nations E-Waste Circulation Association (UNECA), which will include all member states of the UN, with the intentions of:

Defining the scale and nature of transboundary e-waste shipments;

Proposing limitations on amounts of E-waste each country imports to tackle;

Demanding developed countries that export e-waste to provide funds for development of safer methods of recycling and/or share efficient and environment-friendly technologies of recycling;

Facilitating the adoption of environmentally sound technologies for recycling for developing countries;

Recommending a form of tractability by both importing and exporting country and keeping a record of the country’s activities;

Enforcing economic sanctions on countries that do not follow the processes of the UNECA;

Suggests all member nations to fully educate the students, the future leaders of the world, such as but not limited to:

Provide technologies including dismantling technologies as a return of using the landfills of the developing countries;

Clarify e-waste terminology and targets;

Develop processing and monitoring standards;

Create educational and information flows regarding e-waste in local communities;

Suggesting the powerful and wealthy countries such as France, Germany, United States of America by 20%, and the other development countries such as Australia, Sweden, Netherlands, The United Kingdom by 10% each fund the UNECA to help the developing countries,

Imposing take-back obligations by local authorities for retailers who send new appliances to send it to manufacturers;

Returning used or end-of-life equipments with issuance date, and the information of the consumer,

Treating recyclable goods properly by the manufacturers,

Clarifying the definition of E-waste to people and how to separate recyclable or reusable products with non-reusable products,

Emphasizing the education system hope to be done in all public schools or even in some workplaces that is exposed to e-waste,

Educating the dangers of the importing countries to laborers on the hazardous substances that can be leaked into the bodies of the laborers,

Extending a new concept,upcycling; creative reuse

Encouragesmember nations of the United Nation to be responsible to their action such as not but limited to:

Insists all member states of UNECA to ratify legislations regarding the enforcement of properly disposing e-waste and requires member states to:

Requests all member nations to develop an international criteria and legislation that nations could ratify such as but not limited to:

The developed countries and the developing countries should construct an international criteria to separate recyclable or reusable with non-reusable products,  

Enforce laws on fines and prosecute those who operate and dispose e-waste illegally in the countries that are involved in UNECA by:

All shipping should be carefully monitored;

Entailing a comprehensive inspection of all facilities and localities that recycle;

Implementing a monitoring system of the entire recycling process and the dismantling industry;

Urges all member states of the United Nations to cooperate to find an alternative that can reduce the damages the world are receiving due to illness such as lead poisoning.

National finance of each countries should be put into the find alternative of toxins used  in electronic devices     

                                                          

      Member states of UN should support engineers to find out alternatives of toxins used.

     Member states of UN should provide areas for the research

         Hold global conference for engineers of different nation to share the progress in research

Calls for stricter and fairer regulations, such as but not limited to:

Make a limit on the export of toxic e-waste followed by the international criteria and place fines on nations who export more than the limit,

Reinforce legislations like the Basel convention,

Mention the dangers of toxins to the importing countries, granting them a chance to choose whether they will continue import e -waste,

                 

 

Weapons That Are Genetically Engineered

Biological weapons are used to spread diseases among plants, animals, and people through the introduction of microorganism and toxins like bacteria and viruses. The method through which a genetically engineered weapon may be deployed depends on its durability, the route of infection, and its preparation.

As scientists continue to study DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis, it may become possible to create viruses whose DNA sequences are known. In 2001 Dr. Eckard Wimmer demonstrated that humans can synthesize genes when he re-created the poliovirus. Also, Dr. Jeffrey Taubenberger re-created the 1918 influenza virus in 2005. According to some researchers, the DNA synthesis technology will enable creation of novel pathogens.

The growing accessibility of computational power, DNA synthesis capabilities, and information means that people will be able to manufacture bioweapons in the future. Genetic engineers and scientist are considering various techniques to increase effectiveness of pathogens in combat. These techniques include: binary biological weapons, designer genes, gene therapy, stealth viruses, host-swapping diseases, personalized bioweapons and designer diseases.

References

http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/2013/03/genetically-engineered-bioweapons-a-new-breed-of-weapons-for-modern-warfare/#.WApKNqLQNGU

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2004/oct/28/thisweekssciencequestions.weaponstechnology

Genetics Defines a Person

Genetics determines our mental and physical characteristics. It is genes that specify that we are human and we cannot breathe under water or fly, but we can learn how to speak and write. Genes determines why some people are born with average intelligence, others absolute memory and others with absolute music hearing.

Genes determines a lot of our inclinations and traits. Girls have tendency to deal with dolls, instead of machines. They affect how we react to certain diseases and certain activities. It is important to remember that people are continuously pushed by certain tendency. Propensity is made by the genes and individual are responsible for the behaviour.

Kindness to aggression, dementia to brilliance, extroversion or autism is transmitted from a parent to a child. Whether a person can be taught or not, it also associated to his genetics. Simply put, genes are carriers of all our capabilities. Environment only play an insignificant role on the character of a parson.

References

https://ask.naij.com/interesting-facts/how-genetics-works-i27887.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120516115903.htm

New 3D Printers with New Materials

As time goes, development of the technology in this world coincides. One of the examples of world’s development is 3D printing skill. 3D printers make us to print out not only papers, which are 2 dimensional, but also print out some 3 dimensional objects using computer.

생활 용품 & 플라스

 

Like the pictures above, 3D printer will make humans’ lives better by letting them get some supplements in their lives by printing out them in own houses. We can save our money by printing out objects instead of buying them in markets.

However, there were some problems in 3D printing. For common 3D printers, which are not expensive and therefore people can use it publicly, many things such as color, material, and size were limited. On the other had,  expensive 3D printers, which are used in large companies, have less limitation than that of the cheap ones. Diversity of materials for printing, however, were also limited to the large and expensive printers, and most materials were plastic and sometimes paper.

Than lately, a 3D printer company called ExOne made a 3D printer that is capable of using metal and ceramic as materials for printing.

모래로 금속 주물용

For plastics, printers were able to use them as materials by melting  them. And for papers, printers cut them into slices and used them in printing. However, how can metals be used as materials when we cannot cut or melt them? The 3D printer of ExOne discovered the solution for the problem.

First, the printer spreads metal (or ceramic) powders on its floor. Then, when a certain laser lights the specific area, that area solidifies suddenly. So, by solidifying an object by floors (by lifting the base floor of the printer up and down), result came out finally!!

I thought that 3D printers will not be so much useful since I only knew that printers use some simple materials such as plastic. Of course I thought that 3D printers will develop the world much since it has been constructed houses, but by recognizing that 3D printers also use metal, I was able to get more interest in 3D printers and printing skills.

We might be to spend most of our money on recharging 3D printers in the future. Since people uses such programs for 3D designing on computer and spread the files using internet, other people are also able to use that saved files of specific objects to print out.

Five Worst Genetic Disorders

Genetic diseases result from abnormalities or mutations in genes or chromosomes. Although some ethnic groups have higher chances of having some genetic disorders, the diseases can occur in any group. Some genetic diseases are fatal. The following are five worst genetic disorders.

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a rare disease that affects endocrine glands. Caused by a genetic disorder, it occurs most often in Caucasian Europeans. It is the most fatal genetic disorder of Caucasian children. The disease does not have a cure.

Down’s syndrome

Down’s syndrome disorder occurs when a person is born with an additional copy of chromosomes. It causes distinctive facial features, abnormalities of some systems of the body, and mental retardation.

Huntingdon’s disease

This is a hereditary disease that affects the nervous system. It appears in middle age or even early adult life. One of its characteristics is involuntary muscular twitching. Being a degenerative disease, it affects the whole body, causing mental deterioration and finally death. The disorder has no cure.

Tay-Sachs

People suffering from Tay-Sachs do not have an enzyme known as Hex-A. Tay-Sachs. The disorder causes death at an early age, often around five years old. Progressively, it destroys the brain and nervous system. The disorders have no treatment.

Sickle Cell Disease

This disorder evolves to protect people from malaria. Individuals with a single expression of the gene for sickle cell do not suffer from the disease. Getting the gene from both parents allows the red blood cells to “sickle” at the same time during stress crisis. Consequently, the sickled cells get stuck in small capillaries, destroying organs and joints. Eventually, the victim dies of organ failure.

References

http://www.humantruth.info/horrible_genetic_diseases.html

http://www.livestrong.com/article/72920-fatal-genetic-diseases/

http://www.humantruth.info/horrible_genetic_diseases.html

Genes Linked to High Blood Pressure risk

These days, many scientists have been working on research to find more effective treatment for high blood pressure.

Especially, a team from the University of Leicester, working with colleges from the Queen Mary University of London and the University of Cambridge, have found ‘31 gene areas’ which seems to related to blood pressure. For this study, more than 347,000 people participated in it. This scale is the largest of this kind of study.

The discoveries include DNA changes in three genes that have much larger effects on blood pressure in the population than previously seen.

Dr. Louise Wain, from Leicester Institute of Precision Medicine, who co-led the genetic analysis in the study, said that this study provides essential information for precision medicine and allows patients to be treated with targeted therapy in earliest time to prevent the hypertension. And he also said that the first-class, high-performance computing facilities at the University of Leicester made this study to be able to set large scale of data.

High blood pressure – hypertension – is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and early death.

For the study, about 200 investigators from 15 countries participated. The teams investigated genotypes and health records to find the relevance between their genetic structure and cardiovascular health. Published in Nature Genetics, the research found variants in three genes that very small ratio of population have but is twice as much as effective to the hypertension.

Professor Patrick Munroe from Queen Mary’s University of London, the study author, said that this research can bring new development in treatment of hypertension and also can help us to understand the genetic knowledges and new biological pathways.

Professor Jeremy Pearson, associate medical director of the British Heart Foundation, which part-funded the research, also said that this study has identified genes that have larger effects on blood pressure than previously found.

The study was also funded by the National Institute for Health Research, the National Institute of Health, Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council.

 

Reference : http://www.leicestermercury.co.uk/genes-linked-to-high-blood-pressure-risk/story-29722400-detail/story.html#vS3AyYEiggPfCRBd.99