Transcription is the synthesis of a strand of RNA from a DNA template. It is the process by which the information in a DNA strand is copied into a molecule of messenger called RNA. DNA stably and safely stores genetic material in the cell nucleic as a reference. Meanwhile, RNA is like a copy from a reference book because it has the same information as DNA but only used for short-term storage and can exit the nucleus. Although the RNA has the similar information, it is not an identical copy of the DNA segment.
Transcription is steered by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase and several accessory proteins known as transcription factors. These factors bind to specific DNA sequences known as enhancer and promoter sequences to recruit RNA polymerase to a suitable transcription site.
Transcription occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Both RNA polymerase and transcription factors form a complex referred to as the transcription initiation complex. The complex starts transcription process, and the RNA polymerase initiates synthesis of RNA by matching complementary bases to a DNA strand. The molecule of the RNA is elongated and after the strand is entirely created, transcription is terminated.