Most genes have the information that is needed to make proteins. The process in which genes help in the production of protein is complex and regulated within the cell. It consists of two main stages: transcription and translation. Both stages are called gene expression.
During transcription process, the information contained in a DNA of a gene is transferred to a molecule that is known as RNA in the cell nucleus. The type of RNA that receives the information for creating a protein is referred to as mRNA because it carries the information from the DNA, outside the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
The second step, translation, takes place in the cytoplasm. During the process of translation, the mRNA interacts with a ribosome. The main function of a ribosome is to “read” the sequence of mRNA bases. Normally, each sequence of the three mRNA bases code for one specific amino acid. Protein production continues and ends when ribosome meets a “stop” codon (an mRNA sequence that does not code for amino acids)
The flow of information from a DNA to mRNA, and finally to protein is one of the most important principles of molecular biology. Sometimes, it is referred to as the “central dogma”.