Genetic Testing Before and During Pregnancy

Genetic testing before and during pregnancy is given to expecting or prospective parents to look for unusual genes that can cause certain diseases in their baby. Many genetic diseases are referred to as recessive disorders,” meaning that each parent must pass along an abnormal gene to the child for the child to get the disorder. In other words, if one parent screen positive for a genetic disorder but his/her partner does not, the child will not inherit the disorder. And even if both parents screen positive, there is only 25% chance the child will have the condition.
Ideally, genetic testing is done before parents start trying to get pregnant. However, because many pregnancies are accidental, many couples go for genetic testing early in pregnancy.
Getting screened before you get pregnant can help you make an informed decision or reassure you. If it turns out that couples are carriers of a certain genetic disease, they can start preparing to live with a child that has a genetic disease, choose to learn about various prenatal tests to check if their baby is healthy, or they can consider other options such as sperm or egg donation or adoption.
Once you get pregnant, getting tested can help you decide the right prenatal tests for the baby, and what to look for if you decide to have them. For instance, if you know your baby is at increased risk for having sickle cell disease or cystic fibrosis, your physician can look for those disorders specifically through either amniocentesis or a CVS(chorionic villi sampling)
References
http://www.parents.com/getting-pregnant/genetics/tests/genetic-testing/
http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/genetics.html

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