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Psychology Disorders

Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons: first, during various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual. Second, psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts. Humanity tried to fix this problem with different approaches for every era. Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. The first scientific research was done by Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France, who insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders.


  1. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.

  2. “Dissociative Disorder” is when conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

  3. “Dissociative Identity Disorder” (DID) is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder.


10% of Brain??

‘So how much percentage of brain did Einstein took advantage of?’


This is a question we ask ourselves after being mesmerized by the catchy internet phrase; people use only 10% of their brain.

However, this is an error made by two Harvard psychologists William James and Boris Sidis while they were studying a very high IQ child named Willian Sidis(adulthood IQ between 250-300). They claimed that people only attained a fraction of their mental potential. This statement has been misinterpreted my times resulting in the myth.

In fact, it has been proved that humans use all parts of their brains for different tasks throughout their life.

The human brain is very perplexing. Along with some mundane acts-just some millions-, brain carries out manifestos and comes up with neat solutions to equations. It also analyzes human emotions, experiences as well as the repository of memory and self-awareness.

So basically, this mistake made by some psychologists is so wrong that it is even laughable. What is correct, however, is that at certain moments in anyone’s life, such as when we are simply at rest and thinking, we may be using only 10 percent of our brains.

Although it is ironic, people can use 100% of their brain when they don’t even understand half of this soft tissue.


Food waste? Food FUEL!

What is Bio-Fuel? 

Bio-fuels are liquid fuels that are derived from materials such as wastes of plants or animals.

Why is Bio-Fuel Essential?

Due to the drastic increase of population, food consumption increased, gradually forming bounty of food wastes.

Food waste is being produced excessively and is increasing rapidly due to the immense population growth. Despite all the efforts to reduce the rate of production, it is visually proven that this acceleration is inexorable. As researchers realized this fact, they studied ways to focus on the potential possible solutions that can be advantageous than to dissipate inessential effort.

This alteration of perspective engendered a huge technological advancement. Researchers formulated a method to convert organic waste into useful energy source. Briefly explaining the procedure, the discarded organic waste are reduced in size and fermented. In this process, the solid precipitation are grinded into nutritious fertilizer, and the gas produced are utilized to turn the gas motor, affecting the generator to produce electricity.

Categorizing the benefits of food wastes to Bio- Fuels

  1. Can reduce carbon emission: Environmental Benefit.

    carbon emission에 대한 이미지 검색결과

Fossil fuel, one of the commonly used fuels is the cause of massive production of carbon dioxide, engendering green house effect, increasing the temperature more than  0.6 Celsius since the year 2000.(When 1 C increases, half of the population of forests of alpine region disappears,  and the largest coral reef region, Great Barrier Reef will never regain its original shape caused by bleaching. )

Bio-Fuels can reduce carbon emission by 85% compared to mineral diesel including fossil fuels

With the help of bio-fuels, huge amount of Co2 can be reduced, preventing the potential environmental difficulties.

2. Can increase energy production: Economic Benefit

ENERGY에 대한 이미지 검색결과

The world lacks energy. According to US Energy Information Administration(EIA), total energy consumption per year came up to 493 quadrillion (493,000,000,000,000,000).

The world craves for energy. Oil, coal, gas, nuclear energy are the most used energy source in human history: but the global denizen begs for more. Realizing the urgency of the matter, researchers are trying to find an alternative energy source that can be efficient and environmentally harmless. The alternative energy sources brought up till now, has number of flaws that cannot be ignored.

Bio-fuels, on the other hand, are made up of “pure” rubbish. The only requirements are the facilities and professionals of the area.

The whole concept of food wastes being reproduced as crucial energy resource is revolutionary: trash to energy.



3. Can lower space requirements for landfills: Social Benefit

Land fills에 대한 이미지 검색결과

The most popular way to discard food wastes are to pludge them in landfills. This causes environmental, spatial, and social problems. Perilous leachate, land consumption in hectares, and NIMBY(Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon often lacerates relationship between neighbors. Landfills emits unbearable odors and contaminates the land surrounding that area, giving huge disadvantages to the residents inhabiting the region.

However, in the process of creating bio-fuels, the stenches are collected and purified, leaving no scent of reek behind. Also, the wastes are collected in a artificially created room to prevent the leachate from leaking.

 The benefits of recycling food waste are clear, increased energy production, lower carbon emissions, lower space requirements for landfills, and lot more.

People should not view food wastes as squalid rubbish,

But as Necessary Source of Energy.



3 Things YOU Don’t Know about YOURSELF


brain에 대한 이미지 검색결과

“People live without knowing”, a famous quote mentioned by an ancient philosopher, may seem to be a little absurd. However, through the years of development of psychology, researchers realized that this quote is far from false, but is correct. People exclaim that the study of psychology started ever since ancient Greek’s philosophers thought about humans. Chronologically speaking, psychology was studied by scholars for over thousands of years. However, ironically, people understood less than 17% of themselves: the brain.

Yes, we know what it’s made of (77% water, for a start) and how much it weighs (about 3 pounds). We also know that it has somewhere in excess of 80 billion neurons, each one connected chemically and electrically with 10,000 others, creating the world’s most complex network, with more interconnections than there are stars and planets in the Milky Way. But we don’t know how the brain works. Astoundingly, what we don’t understand the most is actually what we are always doing; we just don’t know.


  1. What is consciousness?

Without question, conscious awareness is the most astounding — and most perplexing — aspect of the human brain. Consciousness allows us to experience and reacts to our environment in an apparently self-directed way.

We have our own private thoughts, feelings, opinions, and preferences, and these traits allow us to figure out the world and operate within it.



But we are still quite a ways off from understanding how the brain produces phenomenal experience. Neuroscientists cannot explain how incoming sensations get routed around such that they can be translated into subjective impressions like taste, color, or pain. Or how we can form a mental image in our minds on demand. Scientists think it has something to do with the way the sensory parts of the brain are linked to midbrain structures. Consciousness may also arise from, in the words of Marvin Minsky calls the “Society of Mind.” As Minsky notes, “Consciousness is a word that you use to not discuss the 40 or 50 different processes that are going on at various times…” In extent, there are lots of theories that attempt to understand humans’ consciousness. Some scientists have even proposed quantum effects. But ultimately, people haven’t really got a clue.


  1. How do we store and access memories?

Like a computer’s hard drive, memories are physically recorded in our brains. But we have no idea how our brains do this, nor do we know how this information gets oriented in the brain.

Also, there isn’t just one kind of memory. We have both short-term and long-term memory. There’s also declarative memories (names and facts), and nondeclarative (muscle memory). And within our long-term memories, we have”flashbulb memories” memories where we’re able to remember the precise details of what we were doing during momentary events. To perplex things further, different parts of our brain perform different memory tasks.

Neuroscientists think that memory storage depends on the connection between synapses and the strength of associations; memories aren’t so much encoded as discrete bits of information, but rather as relations between two or more things. In other terms, memories of an event may be stored in a matrix of interconnected neurons in our brains. However, these are also just theories, so theories.



  1. How much of our personality is determined by our brain?

An old “nature versus nurture” debate, this topic is a conundrum that’s difficult to quantify. Some scientists, like Steven Pinker, argue that we’re all born with genetic predispositions that influence our psychologies. A mind has no innate traits, and that most of our individual preferences, if not all, are socially constructed. It’s difficult to tell where the effects of genes start and where they end, particularly as they’re either reinforced or suppressed by social experiences. Epigenetics, in which gene expression is either paused or activated according to environmental circumstances, complicate the issue even further. But in a way, the nature versus nurture debate is moot; the brain is a constant work in progress, a sponge that’s perpetually feeding off the environment.


Why do we SLEEP?

We feel the urge to sleep when waves of tiredness fall upon us that has been accumulated along the day. After a good rest, we can feel the burden of physical and mental fatigue removed from our  body.

Through this, we can emit a question, “Do people sleep to relieve stress?”.

Although this is the significant answer to the question, there are other reasons why sleeping is crucial to our body.

1 Necessary Energy source; Sleep

One way to think about the function of sleep is to compare it to another of our life-sustaining activities: eating. Hunger is a protective mechanism that has evolved to ensure that we consume the nutrients our bodies require to grow, repair tissues, and function properly.

2 Sleep is crucial for LEARNING

Studying mice, scientists at Johns Hopkins have fortified evidence that a key purpose of sleep is to recalibrate the brain cells responsible for learning and memory so the animals can “solidify” lessons learned and use them when they awaken. Without at least 4~6 hours of sleep, more than 40% of the content one studied are not solid in the recollective systems in one’s brain. For young infants 11~13 hours of sleep is required for this ability to function correctly.

But still, the answer to the question cannot be satisfied with the pre-suggestions, for the question is asking for the fundamental reason why animals started the action, “sleeping”.There are several theories to clarify the reason to this action that existed to all living organisms from birth .

Inactivity Theory

MUN Environmental Conference


Listening to the inspirational speech of Monika G. Macdevette, Chief of UNEP Environmental Policy, 300 Korean teenagers  dreams of a sustainable society, where global denizens can use eco-friendly profuse energy without limitations.

2016 UN청소년환경총회에 대한 이미지 검색결과

On October 1st, 2016, Korean adolescents from age 12 to 18  assembled in SNU (Seoul National University) to participate in 2016 UN Youth Environmental Conference.

These students were filtered though strict assessments and were evaluated through pre-elimination essays. Students were acquired to compose these essays under one topic, “Resource Circulation.”

2016 UN청소년환경총회에 대한 이미지 검색결과

On September 24th, 2016, UN Youth Environmental Conference Work-shop was held in Metropolitan Landfill Site located in Incheon City.

This massive landfill occupies the size of six Yeouido region mustered in one, obviously recorded as one of the biggest landfills in the world.

Students had a chance to observe and understand the whole process of disposal of daily trash. These adolescents were also able to grasp the idea of the system, trash into renewable energy.

The genuine conference was held for 3 days(10/1~10/3) in SNU, led by Eco-Mom Korea, along with UNEP, WFUNA, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, Seoul Education Office, and LG Household & Health Care Ltd.

Students were separated into six committees: House of Disposable Products, HO Recyclable Products, HO Food Wastes, HO Alternative Energy, HO Ocean Debris, and HO E-Waste.

Applying the system of UN Conference, delegates of individual countries struggled to stand for the benefits of the cosmopolitan.

2016 UN Youth Environmental Conference Resolution of   E-Waste Committee

Committee: General Assembly

Question of: E-Waste

The General Assembly,

Emphasizing the amount of e-waste increasing all over the world, from 1,900,000 up to


            Recalling the past resolution from the Basel convention entitled  “Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal” has dim effects,

Regretting the loosely enforced policies which allowed easy illegal shipment of waste from developed to undeveloped nations and the fact that 90 percent of electronic waste are illegally traded.

Concerned  that Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) damages both the environment and humanity and the developing countries have underdeveloped technology that are not capable to recycle the WEEE properly,

Condemning the illegal exportation and importation of e-waste from developed countries to developing countries endanger human health,

Proposes the formation of the United Nations E-Waste Circulation Association (UNECA), which will include all member states of the UN, with the intentions of:

Defining the scale and nature of transboundary e-waste shipments;

Proposing limitations on amounts of E-waste each country imports to tackle;

Demanding developed countries that export e-waste to provide funds for development of safer methods of recycling and/or share efficient and environment-friendly technologies of recycling;

Facilitating the adoption of environmentally sound technologies for recycling for developing countries;

Recommending a form of tractability by both importing and exporting country and keeping a record of the country’s activities;

Enforcing economic sanctions on countries that do not follow the processes of the UNECA;

Suggests all member nations to fully educate the students, the future leaders of the world, such as but not limited to:

Provide technologies including dismantling technologies as a return of using the landfills of the developing countries;

Clarify e-waste terminology and targets;

Develop processing and monitoring standards;

Create educational and information flows regarding e-waste in local communities;

Suggesting the powerful and wealthy countries such as France, Germany, United States of America by 20%, and the other development countries such as Australia, Sweden, Netherlands, The United Kingdom by 10% each fund the UNECA to help the developing countries,

Imposing take-back obligations by local authorities for retailers who send new appliances to send it to manufacturers;

Returning used or end-of-life equipments with issuance date, and the information of the consumer,

Treating recyclable goods properly by the manufacturers,

Clarifying the definition of E-waste to people and how to separate recyclable or reusable products with non-reusable products,

Emphasizing the education system hope to be done in all public schools or even in some workplaces that is exposed to e-waste,

Educating the dangers of the importing countries to laborers on the hazardous substances that can be leaked into the bodies of the laborers,

Extending a new concept,upcycling; creative reuse

Encouragesmember nations of the United Nation to be responsible to their action such as not but limited to:

Insists all member states of UNECA to ratify legislations regarding the enforcement of properly disposing e-waste and requires member states to:

Requests all member nations to develop an international criteria and legislation that nations could ratify such as but not limited to:

The developed countries and the developing countries should construct an international criteria to separate recyclable or reusable with non-reusable products,  

Enforce laws on fines and prosecute those who operate and dispose e-waste illegally in the countries that are involved in UNECA by:

All shipping should be carefully monitored;

Entailing a comprehensive inspection of all facilities and localities that recycle;

Implementing a monitoring system of the entire recycling process and the dismantling industry;

Urges all member states of the United Nations to cooperate to find an alternative that can reduce the damages the world are receiving due to illness such as lead poisoning.

National finance of each countries should be put into the find alternative of toxins used  in electronic devices     


      Member states of UN should support engineers to find out alternatives of toxins used.

     Member states of UN should provide areas for the research

         Hold global conference for engineers of different nation to share the progress in research

Calls for stricter and fairer regulations, such as but not limited to:

Make a limit on the export of toxic e-waste followed by the international criteria and place fines on nations who export more than the limit,

Reinforce legislations like the Basel convention,

Mention the dangers of toxins to the importing countries, granting them a chance to choose whether they will continue import e -waste,