Genes that are defective and do not work properly can cause a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is a technique that corrects defective genes responsible for the development of a disease. Researchers may use one of many approaches to correct faulty genes:
-A normal gene is inserted into a generic location in the genome to replace non-functional gene.
– Through homologous recombination, an abnormal gene is swapped for a normal gene.
– An abnormal gene is repaired through selective reverse mutation, returning it to its normal function.
– The regulation of a specific gene could be altered
Researchers have been working for many years to bring gene therapy to a clinic. Although only a few patients have received any fruitful gene therapy treatments, gene therapy cannot be said to be an impossible dream. Despite the fact that gene therapy is taking longer to reach patients, its future is encouraging. Many years of research have taught people a lot about designing effective vectors, targeting various cells, and minimizing and managing immune responses in patients. Today, numerous clinical trials are underway. Researchers are carefully testing treatments to make sure that any gene therapy developed is both safe and effective.
Some of the genetic disorders that are treated successfully using gene therapy include Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID), Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, Leber congenital amaurosis, hemophilia, and blood diseases.
Recently, researchers from the Université de Montréal carried out a research on the genetic and environmental factors in childhood that may control aggressive behavior.
To compare occurrences of proactive and reactive aggressive behavior, they observed 555 sets of twins. The results show that, at age 16, both proactive and reactive aggression share many similar genetic factors. However, as the children get older, the behavior diminishes.
Proactive aggression is verbal or physical behavior meant to gain or dominates personal advantages at the expenses of others. On the other hand, reactive aggression is a defensive response to an apparent threat. While some children only show aggressive behavior, both types of aggression are closely related.
The scientist also observed that, between the ages of 6 and 12, decreases and increases in aggression seem to be influenced by environmental factors rather than genetics. Humans show the highest level of aggressive behavior towards their peers. As children grow, they learn how to control their emotions, communicate and deal with conflicts.
The study included 332 sets of fraternal twins and 223 sets of monozygotic twins, allowing scientist to determine whether differences observed in aggression are caused by genetic or environmental factors.
Dimples are considered a mark of loveliness and beauty. Dimples are genetic disorders that are caused by shortened facial muscles. They are caused by a fault in the hypodermic connective tissue that grows and develops in the course of the embryonic development.
When a person smiles, the facial skin is pulled by the shorter muscle on the face. Consequently, a slight depression is formed in the skin. The depression is what is commonly referred to as a dimple.
Dimples can be present on one or both cheeks. Like all physical traits that people possess they have two genes for them. One gene is inherited from the mother and the other one from the father. The way that a physical trait is expressed is a result of a combination of dominant genes, a recessive and a dominant gene or two recessive genes.
Dimples are passed from one generation to the next. They are inherited facial traits that parents pass to their children. Genes that create dimples are present in the sex cells before the process of reproduction. The child receives these genes from each parent. Therefore, the children have 50-100 percent chances of inheriting dimple genes if both parents have dimples. However, if only one parent has dimple genes, the probabilities of the children receiving the genes are 50 percent.
Sometimes, dimples may also be caused by spontaneous mutations that result in a cleft chin or a dent in the cheek.
The human genome is a complete set of instructions for human beings. It is made up of 23 pairs of chromosomes and each pair has between 500 – 5,000 genes. Genes are responsible for particular traits such as eye color, hair color, etc. All pairs of chromosomes are the same in a man and a woman except one, the sex chromosome. Men have a Y and X chromosomes (XY) while women have two X chromosomes (XX).
Some changes to genes and chromosomes cause abnormal production of sperm or blockage to flow of sperm that leads to male infertility.
Chromosomal conditions are the most common genetic causes of male infertility. Chromosomal conditions that affect sperm production include Y chromosome deletions, Klinefelter’s syndrome, prader-willi syndrome, and other genetic conditions such as Down syndrome.
Infertility due to a gene mutation is less common. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene result in the congenital absence of the vas deferens. This causes blockage to flow of sperm. Other genes linked to fertility are those that prevent the testicles from descending.
It is likely that other genetic conditions will be found in future that will allow scientist to explain other causes of male infertility that currently have no known cause.
Why do people undergo cosmetic surgery? It’s a simple question that’s unlikely to yield a simple answer.
Cosmetic surgery’s original intention was to treat the patients who have injured their physical appearances such as physiognomy. However, including Korea, lots of countries’ denizens are undergoing cosmetic surgery in order to achieve “beauty”.
A common comment from those who have gone under the knife or needle is “I do it for myself.” But what does that really mean? Maybe that the patient decided on surgery because of the benefits it confers on the self, not for any effects it might have on others, such as romantic partners or rivals. “I do it for myself” also emphasizes the free will of the patient: he or she doesn’t feel pressured into surgery by outside forces, such as peer pressure, the media, or advertisements.
However, new research published recently has questioned the motives of those who opt for cosmetic procedures and suggests that they may be more complex than many would care to admit.
One of the clearest benefits of cosmetic surgery is that it improves appearance. If it didn’t, nobody would spend the money or go through the pain associated with those procedures.
Most of us would rather be more attractive than our peers because attractiveness confers all kinds of benefits, including the ability to compete for higher-value partners.
According to researchers, hundreds of genetic mutations start to form in embryo cells soon after conception. The researchers from Yale University and Mayo Clinic said that numerous of these mutations take place as sex cells form in the embryo. That means they became part of the genome of the embryo and can be passed on to the next generation.
The study author Flora Vaccarino said that their research opens up a new perspective on human development. The research findings show that some of the human genomes do not come from the parents.
According to the researchers, these early genetic mutations are like those found in cancer. This suggests that sometimes cancer occurs as a normal by-product of cell division.
The scientist added that their findings provide new insight into causes of disease such as autism and schizophrenia. These disorders are primarily the outcome of genetic abnormalities, but no genes inherited from parents have been found to cause such cases.
In addition, the study may help to explain why one identical twin may be healthy while the other has a genetic disorder, or why some family members who carry disease-causing mutations do not get sick.
Even though people share some characteristics with their family members and their peers, every person has an exceptional combination of traits. Some traits are acquired through learning while others are controlled by genes that children inherit from their parents. The following are some examples of traits that are easily observed.
Attachment of earlobe is a continuous trait. However, most earlobes can be classified as attached or unattached, or in-between. Some sources say that earlobe attachment is controlled by a single gene, and unattached earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes.
Some people can roll their tongue while others cannot. About 70 percent of people of European ancestry can roll their tongues, according to 1940 study by Alfred Sturtevant. Although many sources state that rolling of the tongue is controlled by a single gene, Sturtevant observed that people can learn to twist their tongue as they get older.
A dimple is a small natural indentation on the chin or in the cheek. Dimples can appear on both or one side. Some individuals are born with dimples while others develop them later in childhood. Dimples are heritable and individuals who have dimples tend to pass them to their children.