10% of Brain??

‘So how much percentage of brain did Einstein took advantage of?’

 

This is a question we ask ourselves after being mesmerized by the catchy internet phrase; people use only 10% of their brain.

However, this is an error made by two Harvard psychologists William James and Boris Sidis while they were studying a very high IQ child named Willian Sidis(adulthood IQ between 250-300). They claimed that people only attained a fraction of their mental potential. This statement has been misinterpreted my times resulting in the myth.

In fact, it has been proved that humans use all parts of their brains for different tasks throughout their life.

The human brain is very perplexing. Along with some mundane acts-just some millions-, brain carries out manifestos and comes up with neat solutions to equations. It also analyzes human emotions, experiences as well as the repository of memory and self-awareness.

So basically, this mistake made by some psychologists is so wrong that it is even laughable. What is correct, however, is that at certain moments in anyone’s life, such as when we are simply at rest and thinking, we may be using only 10 percent of our brains.

Although it is ironic, people can use 100% of their brain when they don’t even understand half of this soft tissue.

 

Hackers’ treasure box – ‘Cloud’

Lots of people – almost all people maybe- use ‘cloud’ for their own warehouse of private information. ‘Google Drive’ and ‘I Cloud’ can be the examples of those named ‘Cloud’. Not in the internal storage such as a computer or mobile phone, but in the external storage server, people can download or upload their files. These cloud systems made people’s lives so much comfortable.

iCloud :: 아이클라우드 사용법 1탄, 기본적인 설정 및 아이클라우드 소개

However, ‘I Cloud’ -the cloud system served by ‘Apple’ company- had recently been hacked by the unknown hackers!!! According to a BBC News report in January 2014, hundreds of British and American celebrities’ pictures had been spilled. Following to this incident, lots of people are worrying about their private information being spilled out. Then, why are the hackers aiming to hack these ‘Cloud’ systems despite their advanced security systems – which leads hackers to spend lots of money?

Before hacking the server, the hackers approximately measure how much money would be spent and be earned after hacking the server. This is because the reason why hackers hack is just to get the incomes. For Cloud Systems, however, they can give more than hackers pay to hack the servers’ security systems. There are three big reasons why Cloud Systems give much benefit to the hackers.

The first reason is that the Cloud Systems contain a lot of important information in them. From individuals to large businesses, big data are stored in the Cloud Systems. Thus, the hackers can hold a mortgage on the information and earn much money. The second reason is that since the Cloud Systems are one of the kinds of server systems, diffusion of malignant codes is easily done. For example, the hackers can make malignant codes as the update files falsely and make people to be infected in those codes readily. Lastly, since Cloud Systems are made to share files among people, malignant codes can be shared among people easily. To be specific, sharing infected files with other people make other people’s files to be infected, too.

Cloud Systems are commonly used among lots of people in this world. The security systems on the server were not that weak systems, too. However, the hackers decided to hack since the server makes more benefit to the hackers more than they need to spend for passing the security systems. This is the matter of course, but the Cloud Systems necessarily need to be reinforced in security systems until the hackers profit being canceled out. After then, the hackers might lose the motivation to hack the Cloud System Servers and the private information. I hope this world to be safer in the online world, too.

References:

http://www.sciencetimes.co.kr/?p=162359&cat=135&post_type=news

Could humans ever regenerate the heart? The answer is YES.

 

Nowadays, there are a lot of people who need the organs immediately, but there are not that many supplies of organs to fulfill their needs in order to save their life. However, recently, the scientists figured out that the answer for whether it is possible to regenerate the organs turned out to be YES. In a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the University of Florida scientist and colleagues found genes known to form hearts cells in humans and other animals in the gut of a muscle-less and heartless sea anemone. However, this is not just a simple, ordinary creature. It has very unique superpower-like abilities, which is it can be cut into many pieces and each piece will regenerate into a new animal. They figured out that this is very useful because they can modify the genes in this sea anemone and cut it into tiny pieces, then it’s population will automatically increase and it would make a new animal.

But how does it work? Usually, in humans, it doesn’t work. If we take the skin off and try to regenerate into the heart, it is impossible to do it. The reason why it is impossible is that we do have ‘lock down loops’. This is the thing when the genes are turned on once, they tell each other to stay on in an animal’s cells for its entire lifetime. In other words, animals with a lock-down such as vertebrates and flies on their genes cannot grow new heart parts or use those cells for other functions. Thus our skin cell can only produce skin cell.

On the other hand, apparently, in sea anemone embryos, the lock-down loops do not exist. Which means one cell can easily change to other cells and be part of it naturally. Scientists can easily modify the genes and make it into a heart, which can save one’s lives. Moreover, according to the website, the study supports the idea that definitive muscle cells found in the majority of animals arose from a bifunctional gut tissue, that had both absorptive and contractile properties. And, in the sea anemone tissue, it has characteristics of the heart cells which is rhythmic peristaltic waves of contraction. Thus, this might be the key to produce not the artificial organs, but the real organs made from the animal.

 

References: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170626190625.htm

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-could-one-day-regenerate-a-human-heart-suggests-a-new-study

DEVELOPING TREATMENT FOR CANCER

Do you know what is the most probable cause of death in Korea? It is cancer. However, many types of carcinostatic agents have developed over the years. There are three kinds of the carcinostatic drugs: chemical drug, target drug, immune drug. The problem of the chemical drug is that it attacks not only cancer cells but also normal cells. It causes many side effects such as hair loss or anemia. The target drug was studied to overcome this problem. It attacks only cancer cells. The target drug can discern what is the cancer cell or the normal cell by recognizing specific genes or proteins. For instance, a gene called BRCA that causes the breast cancer can be the target. However, sometimes these specific substances live in the normal cells. It results in the side effects. To be specific, there is Herceptin which attacks HER2. The problem is that HER2 is found not only in the cancer cell but also in the normal cell. For this reason, the side effect associated with a heart can occur. Furthermore, the cancer cell can come up with a new way to survive, when the target drug is prescribed. The immune drug is differentiated from the chemical agent and the target drug in the light of the fact that it does not attack the cancer cells directly. It attacks the cancer cells by using immune cells. It is hard for the immune cells to discern the cancer cells are enemies or not because the cancer cells apply immune escape strategy. However, the immune drug attacks immune escape substances. Therefore, immune cells can recognize that the cancer cells are enemies. Immune cells begin to attack the cancer cells. It can prevent the growth of the cancer cells. The advantage of the immune drug is that there are almost no side effects. Recently, the immune drug shows good results at the treating of lung cancer.

The problem of the chemical drug is that it attacks not only cancer cells but also normal cells. It causes many side effects such as hair loss or anemia. The target drug was studied to overcome this problem. It attacks only cancer cells. The target drug can discern what is the cancer cell or the normal cell by recognizing specific genes or proteins. For instance, a gene called BRCA that causes the breast cancer can be the target. However, sometimes these specific substances live in the normal cells. It results in the side effects. To be specific, there is Herceptin which attacks HER2. The problem is that HER2 is found not only in the cancer cell but also in the normal cell. For this reason, the side effect associated with a heart can occur. Furthermore, the cancer cell can come up with a new way to survive, when the target drug is prescribed. The immune drug is differentiated from the chemical agent and the target drug in the light of the fact that it does not attack the cancer cells directly. It attacks the cancer cells by using immune cells. It is hard for the immune cells to discern the cancer cells are enemies or not because the cancer cells apply immune escape strategy. However, the immune drug attacks immune escape substances. Therefore, immune cells can recognize that the cancer cells are enemies. Immune cells begin to attack the cancer cells. It can prevent the growth of the cancer cells. The advantage of the immune drug is that there are almost no side effects. Recently, the immune drug shows good results at the treating of lung cancer.

The immune drug is differentiated from the chemical agent and the target drug in the light of the fact that it does not attack the cancer cells directly. It attacks the cancer cells by using immune cells. It is hard for the immune cells to discern the cancer cells are enemies or not because the cancer cells apply immune escape strategy. However, the immune drug attacks immune escape substances. Therefore, immune cells can recognize that the cancer cells are enemies. Immune cells begin to attack the cancer cells. It can prevent the growth of the cancer cells. The advantage of the immune drug is that there are almost no side effects. Recently, the immune drug shows good results at the treating of lung cancer.

 

Reference : http://science.ytn.co.kr/program/program_view.php?s_mcd=0082&key=201707061056052577

 

Hawaiian biodiversity is declining for millions of years

 

Hawaii’s unique animal and plant diversity has been declining on all but the Big Island for millions of years, long before humans arrived, according to a new analysis of species diversity on the islands by the University of California, Berkeley, evolutionary biologists.

The team concluded that animal diversity of Hawaii have already decreased before human’s involvement in animal extinction. The shrinking areas of old islands

Today, all of the islands except the Big Island of Hawaii — the only island still growing — have experienced a decrease in species diversity, albeit imperceptibly on human time scales, since even before the extinction caused by human activity.

They reached this conclusion with a new method for analyzing the species diversity on the different islands in the multiple-island chain, deducing the history of diversification on each island with their new approach for 14 different groups, or clades, of birds, insects, spiders, and plants.

The volcanic Hawaiian islands we see today emerged from the waves over a period of about 6 million years, carried northwestward as the ocean crust moved over from the hot spot that brought the magma from inside Earth to the sea floor to build the islands. Kauai emerged slightly more than 6 million years ago, the newest, the Big Island of Hawaii, only about 1.3 million years ago.

Each new islands, colonized by plants and animals of older islands, lead a wealth of new species that filled each island’s ecological niches. For instance,  honeycreepers, an endemic group of bird species, and the unique silverswords filled all of Kauai’s carrying capacity -the number of species a particular ecosystem can support – within about 3 million years.

Marshall realized that “the progression of islands of the Hawaiian archipelago can be viewed as an evolutionary time machine,” revealing “rates of species-richness change for endemic species of the archipelago,” which has virtually no fossil record.

“It is increasingly appreciated that the biota of any particular place is a dynamic, ever-changing association of species,” Lim said. “The beauty of islands like Hawaii is that their geologic setting provides multiple temporal snapshots, and in so doing provides us a window to understanding the processes that have shaped its assembly through time.”

 

Reference

http://news.berkeley.edu/2017/03/16/hawaiianbiodiversityhasbeendecliningformillionsofyears

Smog Free Tower

As time goes, the world is suffering more and more because of the increasing fine dust. Especially in China, lots of factories make fine dust and spreads out all over the world. The problem is that the fine dust cannot be filtered by the hairs of the nostrils, causing lots of diseases from the bronchial diseases to the severe diseases. Therefore, many people in the world are trying to get rid of this ‘Fine Dust Problem’. Meanwhile, one of the artist (also known as a designer) in Netherlands named ‘Daan Roosegaarde’ designed a 7 meters high air purifier at Beijing.

094. 스모그 프리 타워

Theoretically, this tower can purify more than 60% of the surrounding 30,000㎥ of air. Moreover, since the most of the existing fine dust came from coal, which is the molecule made by carbon, diamond can be manufactured by processing the filtered substances by high-temperature. At least one diamond can be made by 1,000㎥ of pollutants.

Lewis structure of graphite에 대한 이미지 검색결과[짜판] 안철수 ‘스모그 프리타워’ 공약 뜯어보니

(Lewis structure of Graphite) 

However, this theoretical idea had been removed only after 42 days from its construction. The reason why is that this air purifier did not have real efficiency as people expected. It was no more than a ‘designed’ machine for ‘International Design Festival’. It was not able to purify the surrounding air from the fine dust.

As the world expected, the fine dust problem was not just a simple problem. The problem which suffered us for long period of time does not leave from our daily-life readily. However, the idea of cleaning the air using a large air purifier and further making diamond was fresh and great. No one can have doubt on that the challenge of human to nature is respectful and never-ending.

Science of cycling remains still largely mysterious

 

Recently, a bicycle has become not only a transportation but also a trend item. Environmental issues contributed to the growth of bicycle market. As the bicycle market grew, more and more people started to buy and ride their own bicycle. However, there are only a few people who understand the intricacies of how cycling actually works. Let’s take a look at some questions about the bicycle.

What do we know about the bicycle? We know one simple principle: pedal turns a gear that turns a wheel. But it’s physics that is really fascinating. As we think more deeply, more and more mysteries appear — how the bicycle goes straight, what factors work to balance when it moves, etc. Quantum physicist Michael Brooks summed it up nicely in a 2013 article in the New Statesman: “Forget mysterious dark matter and the inexplicable accelerating expansion of the universe; the bicycle represents a far more embarrassing hole in the accomplishments of physics.”

Then, you might think that the design of bicycle has the key of the physics. The answer is, it actually not. Indeed, bicycle manufacturers put a lot of effort and energy in designing bicycles. They put new carbon fiber frames, different sized wheels or tires with different thicknesses. But these are the result guessed by a lot of tests, not mathematically calculated theories.

Although scientists don’t know the exact factor, we know some simple basics. Bike going straightly isn’t just because of the force of momentum pushing it there. First, the bike can’t go straight if the handlebar is fixed. Second, one of the key figures is handlebar angle. The angled handlebar makes an effect of sliding from tilted wall. This is because the steering axis and the contact point are at different places, so the front tire moves towards the steering axis. That helps the bike self-steer and makes the bicycle stable when a rider is on it. What we still don’t know is how these forces, as well as the gyroscopic effect of the tires turning, interact with one another.

The reality is that bike design really hasn’t improved in decades, says Jim Papadopoulos. People have just tried to improve the appearance and reduce the weight of bicycles. So, what we can improve now is change the rider. To bicycles, riders are the most important factor for getting balanced. The aerodynamic position of a rider is certainly important if the road is not really smooth. We can credit the bike for a lot of things, but the real machine that we have to think about more is the rider driving the bicycle forward.

Reference: http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/science-of-cycling-still-mysterious-1.3699012